Endocan & pulmonary inflamation
The lungs naturally receive a large flow of blood. Many leukocytes pass through the lungs, but do not cross the underlying tissues. To keep these leukocytes into the bloodstram, endothelial cells that line the inner wall of blood vessels produce mediators like endocan that prevent the leukocytes from spontaneously migrating into the alveolus.
Endocan is neosynthesized by the pulmonary endothelium in response to proinflammatory stimuli. It is completely secreted in free form in the bloodstream. Its apparent molecular weight of 400 kDa due to the presence of a glycosaminoglycan chain prevents its filtration through the kidney glomerular barrier. This makes endocan an excellent biomarker able to provide information on the inflammatory state of the deep lung (see table below).
Predicted respiratory event
|Pathological context||Source PubMed|
|Respiratory failure||Abnormal low blood endocan. Dealyed pulmonary response||Polytrauma, sepsis, COVID ?||PubMed studies|
|Severity of pneumonia||Abnormal high blood endocan. Increased pulmonary response||community-acquired pneumonia||PubMed studies|
|Posptoperative pneumonia||Abnormal high blood endocan after surgery. Increase pulmonary response.||Cardiac surgery||PubMed studies|
|Nosocomial pneumonia||INcreasing blood endocan. Increased pulmonary response||Mechanically ventilated patient||PubMed studies|
|Severity||Abnormal high blood endocan||Sleep apnea syndrome||PubMed studies|
Endocan and tumor angiogenesis
Endocan is also neosynthesized during angiogenesis in response to angiogenic mediators such as VEGF. Endocan is preferentially expressed in specialized endothelial cells called tip-cells, found at the growing end of a nascent vascular sprout and are characterized by abundant and dynamic filopodia. Endocan promotes vascular sprouting in the presence of VEGF. This makes endocan an excellent marker of tumor angiogenesis, which has been particularly studied in hepatocarcinoma and gastric cancer.
|Diagnostic value||Pathologic context||PubMed studies|
|Early recurrence||Expression in tumor vessels Endocan Positive/negative on pre-therapuetic liver biopsy. Se : 95% (42/44) – Sp : 92% (13/155) VPP : 76% – VPN : 99%||Suspicion of hepato carcinoma.||PubMed studies|
|Aggression||Expression in tumor vessels and in tumor cells. Endocan positive on gastric bipsy. Abnormal elevated plasma endocan||Gastric Cancer||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||One of the genes of a poor prognosis||Breats cancer||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||Expression in tumor vessels||Kidney Cancer||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||Expression in tumor vessels||Bladder Cancer||PubMed studies|
|High grade||Expression plaisadic tuors cells||Brain Cancer||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||Expression in tumor vessels||Lung Cancer||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||Expression in tumor vessels||Colon Cancer||PubMed studies|
Endocan & vascular syndromes
Finally, variations of blood endocan levels are observed in various pathologies where endothelial dysfunction is associated, such as proliferative retinopathy or early severe preeclampsia..
|Predicted event||Diagnotic value||Pathophysiological context||PubMed studies|
|Early severe preeclampsia||Abonromaly low level in the 3rd month of gestation. POssible indicatio of low dose aspirin||End of the first trimester gestation||PubMed studies|
|Digestive graft versus host reaction||Abnormaly low blood level before transplantation||Bone marrow||PubMed studies|
|Proliferative retinopathy||Abnormal high vitreous count||Rétinopathie diabétique||PubMed studies|
|Poor prognosis||Abnormal high blood level||Cirrhosis||PubMed studies|